The Paleo problem: The pros and cons of the Paleo Diet.

The Paleo diet is a variation of the Paleo diet that includes a reduced consumption of foods that were traditionally consumed in the Paleolithic era, such as fish, meat, vegetables, fruits and nuts. Proponents of the diet claim that the diet is appropriate for all stages of the life cycle and is suitable for all people because it encourages a diet rich in lean proteins and healthy fats.

I’m not going to give you any recommendations about the Paleo diet, because that would be far too simple and straightforward. What I’ve decided to do is avoid the problem and focus on the solution.

Today’s Paleo diet is a hot topic. It’s hailed as a way to eat in moderation and lose weight, but people claim they can’t stay on it long term. So, are the claims true? Is this diet really the best way to eat, or is it better to eat a more balanced, less restrictive diet?

You’ve definitely heard about the Paleo – or “caveman” – diet unless you’ve been living in a cave. Maybe you’ve even given it a shot. A little meat here, a little fresh produce there. Perhaps eliminating grains and processed foods from your diet. It’s an intriguing concept that piques one’s interest. Is it, however, healthy? Is it effective? In this essay, we’ll look into that.

What we’ll talk about

We’ll provide you a comprehensive guide to the Paleo diet in this article.

First:

  • We’ll define what the term “Paleo” means.
  • We’ll go through what makes hunter-gatherers so unique.
  • We’ll go over how and what ancestral-style eaters do in practice.

Then we’ll critically examine the theories and evidence.

  • What does the Paleo diet entail?
  • What evidence supports eating in the manner of our ancestors?
  • What could be causing our chronic health issues in the twenty-first century?
  • Is the Paleo diet true to its name?
  • What does our GI tract have to say to us?

Finally, we’ll get to the most crucial conclusion:

  • What are your options for dealing with all of this?

Over 150,000 health & fitness professionals certified

Save up to 30% on the leading nutrition education curriculum in the market.

Gain a better grasp of nutrition, the authority to coach it, and the capacity to transform that knowledge into a successful coaching business.

Find Out More

img-book-ipad-small

“Paleo” is a term that has been defined.

The Paleo, or primal, diet is built around two main concepts.

  1. We evolved to eat certain types of foods.
  2. We need to eat like our ancestors if we want to be healthy, strong, and active – and avoid the chronic ailments of modernity.

 

An overview of the history of eating

The first primates, our oldest cousins, lived more than 60 million years ago. They ate mostly fruit, leaves, and insects, just like most modern monkeys.

Things began to alter some 2.6 million years ago, at the start of the Paleolithic epoch.

Our forefathers and mothers were the first to adopt the opposable thumb and large brain adaptations. They began to use stone tools and fire, and as a result, their diet gradually changed.

Our forefathers ate an omnivorous hunter-gatherer diet by the time true modern humans were on the scene some 50,000 years ago.

The Paleo diet’s foundation

As a result, we arrive at a Paleo diet model that includes:

  • animals (meat, fish, reptiles, insects, and practically all of the animals’ components, including organs, bone marrow, and cartilage)
  • items derived from animals (such as eggs or honey)
  • roots/tubers, leaves, flowers, and stems are all examples of plant parts (in other words, vegetables)
  • fruits
  • Nuts and seeds that are suitable for raw consumption

Many Paleo advocates have recently proposed that people start with the above, then gradually add grass-fed dairy (primarily yogurt and other cultured choices) and modest amounts of “properly prepared” legumes (those that have been soaked overnight).

What makes hunter-gatherers so unique?

The majority of the globe figured out agriculture around 10,000 years ago. As a result, the Paleolithic period gave way to the Neolithic period.

Planting and farming provided us with a steady and reasonably predictable food source, which was essential for the development of civilization.

However, the 10,000-year span since the beginning of the Neolithic period accounts for only around 1% of the time that people have been on the planet.

Many people believe that the shift from a hunter-gatherer diet (rich in wild fruits and vegetables) to an agricultural diet (rich in cereal grains) is what led to today’s chronic ailments including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

This is a core concept of the Paleo Diet, and one of the main reasons why proponents argue that we should revert to our ancestral meat-and-vegetable-based diet.

What are the chances for “ancestral eaters”?

Of course, we don’t have thorough medical records of our hunter-gatherer predecessors, despite having significant skeletal remains, cooking sites, and other sorts of evidence.

We do, however, have real-life sample populations to examine.

A world with different dietary options

From the “nutty and seedy” African!Kung to the root vegetable-eating Kitavans near Papua, New Guinea, to the meat-and-fat-loving Inuit of the Arctic, the relatively few surviving hunter-gatherer groups enjoy a diverse array of diets.

Because what individuals ate depended on where they lived: largely plant-based (in the tropics), mostly animal-based (in the Arctic), and everything in between, these foraging diets are diverse and likely represent the widely variable diets of our prehistoric predecessors.

Regardless of how diverse their diets were around the world, most Paleolithic individuals consumed roughly three times as much produce as the average American.

Paleolithic humans consumed more fiber, protein, omega-3 fatty acids, unsaturated fat, vitamins, and minerals than the average American today, while consuming far less saturated fat and sodium.

How Hunter-Gatherer Diets vary by Geography

Jen Christiansen is the author of this image (Scientific American)

An example from today

Kitava Island people, off the coast of Papua New Guinea, are possibly the most well-known modern hunter-gatherer population.

Kitavans, according to Dr. Staffan Lindeberg, who has studied their habits extensively, live exclusively on:

  • root vegetables with a starchy texture (yam, sweet potato, taro, tapioca);
  • berries (banana, papaya, pineapple, mango, guava, watermelon, pumpkin); fruits (banana, papaya, pineapple, mango, guava, watermelon, pumpkin);
  • vegetables;
  • seafood and fish; and
  • coconuts.

Despite the fact that the majority of Kitavans smoke, they are healthy and vigorous, free of obesity, diabetes, heart attacks, strokes, and acne.

Things appear to be in order for cave dwellers to eat.

What Paleo guarantees

As you might have guessed (pun intended), the basic theory behind a primal diet is that our old human genetic “blueprint” doesn’t match our present 21st-century diet and lifestyle.

As a result, our health and happiness are harmed.

In addition, the Paleo diet makes the following evolutionary assumptions:

  • Paleolithic hunter-gatherers were strong and healthy, living about as long as we do now assuming they didn’t die young from accidents or infectious diseases.
  • Paleolithic hunter-gatherers became sicker, shorter, and spindlier when they transitioned to Neolithic agriculture.
  • Modern hunter-gatherers are healthy, and when they adapt to a modern diet, their health deteriorates.

What proof do you have?

While there is a case to be made for this evolutionary trend, hunter-gatherers were not perfect health models.

To begin with, they were almost definitely infected with parasites. They were also susceptible to a wide range of infectious infections.

Furthermore, a recent study published in The Lancet examined 137 mummies from cultures all around the world for evidence of atherosclerosis, including Egypt, Peru, the American Southwest, and the Aleutian Islands.

They found atherosclerosis in 47 of 137 mummies from all four geographic locations, regardless of whether the persons were farmers, hunter-gatherers, peasants, or the elite.

Regardless of their lifestyle, everyone develops artery hardening. Indeed, the Aleutian Islands’ hunter-gatherers had the highest prevalence, with 60 percent of their mummies showing signs of atherosclerosis.

This is food for thinking.

Affluence and industrialisation diseases

Although atherosclerosis is a common human experience regardless of socioeconomic status, “diseases of affluence” (obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases) have increased dramatically in industrialized countries like the United States in the last 50 years, especially when compared to non-industrialized populations.

Industrialization and technology have dramatically changed the way we eat and live during the last century, a period that is unquestionably far too short for major genetic adaptation.

Currently, the average American eats packaged and commercially prepared foods. These meals, which are heavy in refined sugars and carbohydrates, highly processed fats, and sodium, are designed to be so tasty that they override the body’s natural fullness signals and encourage overeating.

Consider this: Grain-based desserts (cake, cookies, etc. ), yeast breads, chicken-based foods (and no, this does not imply roast chicken), sweetened beverages, pizza, and alcoholic beverages are the top six calorie sources in the American diet today.

These aren’t traditional foods. Neither are there any foods that any nutrition expert, regardless of dietary preference, would ever suggest.

As a result, when advocates of the Paleo diet assert that our modern Western diet is unhealthy, they are completely correct.

Evolution and the unhealthy diet

Is the Paleo diet, however, truly Paleo?

Remember, there is no such thing as a “Paleo diet.”

Our forefathers and mothers roamed the globe, living in a wide range of locations and eating a wide range of foods.

Even still, most primordial diets included far more vegetables and fruits than most people consume today. So, if we want to be healthier, we should consume a lot of these like our forefathers did. Correct?

Maybe… However, not always for the reasons that Paleo advocates advocate.

To begin with, most modern fruits and vegetables are not the same as those consumed by our forefathers.

Early fruits and vegetables were bitter, smaller, more difficult to gather, and occasionally toxic.

We’ve bred plants with the most desirable and appealing characteristics over time, such as the largest fruits, finest hues, sweetest meat, fewest natural toxins, and highest yields.

We’ve also broadened plant types by developing new cultivars from common sources (such as hundreds of cultivars of potatoes or tomatoes from a few ancestral varieties).

Similarly, the majority of modern animal meals aren’t the same.

Beef steak is not the same as bison steak or deer meat, even if it is grass-fed. And so forth.

This isn’t to say that modern produce or meat are fundamentally good or terrible. It’s just not like anything else available in Paleolithic times.

As a result, the idea that we should eat a diet rich in vegetables, fruits, and meats because we were designed to eat those foods is a little dubious. They didn’t even exist in Paleolithic times, let alone the ones we eat now!

Grains and grasses are two of the most common crops in the United States.

Paleo diet proponents say that our forefathers’ diets couldn’t have included many grains, beans, or dairy products. They further argue that 10,000 years of agriculture is insufficient time to adapt to these “new” foods.

This reasoning is persuasive, yet it does not hold up under investigation.

  • To begin with, new research published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences has found that prehistoric people may have been eating grasses and cereals before the Paleolithic epoch even began — up to three or four million years ago!
  • Further research has discovered grain and cereal grass granules on stone stools dating back at least 105,000 years.
  • Meanwhile, grain granules found on grinding artifacts from all around the world imply that Paleolithic humans practiced flour grinding as early as 30,000 years ago.

To put it another way, the notion that Paleolithic humans never ate grains and cereals appears to be exaggerated.

Is it true that beans are unhealthy for you?

Grains aren’t the only sort of plant that Paleo dieters avoid. For the same reason, advocates advise against eating legumes (beans, peanuts, peas, and lentils).

However, just as the claim that people didn’t eat grains in the Paleolithic era is inaccurate, so is the claim that legumes were not commonly available or consumed in the Paleolithic era.

In fact, according to a 2009 study, our Paleolithic forefathers not only ate legumes, but they were an essential element of their diet! (Even our ape cousins, such as chimps, indulged in bean consumption.)

Legumes have been discovered at Paleolithic sites all over the world, and in some cases, they have been determined to be the most common type of plant diet. In fact, the evidence for Paleolithic humans eating wild legumes is as robust as it is for any other plant food.

Anti-nutrients, what about them?

Okay. Perhaps our forefathers did consume a small amount of grain and legumes, thus the historical argument is invalid.

However, Paleo proponents provide another reason to shun these foods: their high anti-nutrient content, which allegedly reduces their nutritious value to nil.

There is only one flaw in this reasoning. It’s incorrect.

Indeed, evidence reveals that the benefits of legumes significantly outweigh their anti-nutrient content, especially given that most anti-nutrient effects are eliminated during cooking.

Cooking reduces the amount of lectins and protease inhibitors in particular. And, once heated, these compounds may be beneficial to our health. Protease inhibitors become anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic as lectins limit tumor growth.

Phytic acid is a kind of phytic acid.

What about phytate, though?

This anti-nutrient, which can bind to minerals like zinc and iron and inhibit their absorption, is abundant in grains, nuts, and legumes. Isn’t that reason enough to stay away from grains and legumes?

Certainly not.

While too much phytic acid can be harmful, it can also be beneficial when consumed in moderation.

It can, for example:

  •      have antioxidant properties
  •      Defend DNA from harm
  •      be probiotic in nature (i.e. bacteria food)
  •      have cancer-fighting qualities
  •      Heavy elements like cadmium and lead have lower bioavailability.

Phytic acid is unlikely to cause difficulties in a mixed diet that includes other nutrient-dense whole foods.

In fact, practically all foods, especially plant foods, include anti-nutrition as well as nutrients.

Exceptionally nutritious vegetables like spinach, Swiss chard, many berries, and dark chocolate, for example, include oxalate, an anti-nutrient that prevents calcium absorption.

Tannins, another anti-nutrient that hinders zinc and iron absorption, are found in green tea and red wine.

And so forth.

Overall, phytic acid and other so-called anti-nutrients are likely to have a “sweet spot” in their effectiveness (just like most nutrients).

  • It’s possible that eating none or a tiny amount won’t make a difference.
  • A moderate amount of food may be beneficial.
  • You will be harmed if you eat too much. (For more information, see All About Phytates.)

Inflammation and grains

Another proponent of the Paleo diet claims that grains cause inflammation and other health issues.

While this may be true for people with celiac disease (which affects about 1% of the population) and those with non-celiac gluten sensitivity (which affects about 10% of the population, if it exists at all), the research does not support this argument in the same way that it does not support the anti-nutrient argument.

In reality, observational studies have found that:

  • Although complete grains may help to reduce inflammation,
  • Refined grains have been linked to an increase in inflammation.

In other words, it appears that processing, rather than the grain itself, may be the source of difficulties.

Meanwhile, controlled studies repeatedly indicate that eating whole or refined grains has little effect on inflammation!

What are we to make of it?

In the worst-case scenario, whole grains appear to have no effect on inflammation. (For more information, see All About Grains and A Grain of Truth.)

Overall, a large body of data from observational and controlled trial research suggests that consuming whole grains and legumes is beneficial to human health, including:

  •      improved lipid levels in the blood;
  •      regulation of blood glucose levels;
  •      inflammation is reduced; and
  •      a reduced risk of stroke and coronary artery disease

To subscribe to anyone’s dietary ideology, removing these key foods from our diet is generally a bad idea.

Can eating whole grains and legumes improve our health?

The human gastrointestinal tract has evolved over time.

It’s commonly remarked in Paleo circles that while the world has altered in countless ways over the last 10,000 years, our DNA have changed very little. Furthermore, we can only survive in a world that is similar to that of the Paleolithic era.

This isn’t how evolution or genetic expression work, to be honest.

Our species would not have survived long if we could only flourish in environments comparable to or identical to those in which our forefathers lived.

There are numerous examples of how we have evolved over the last 10,000 years.

For example, roughly 40% of us have gained the ability to consume dairy for a lifetime over the last 8,000 years or so. As a species, we’re evolving a mutation that allows us to generate the lactase enzyme for significantly longer periods of time than our forefathers could. True, not everyone can digest lactose well, but more people than ever before are able to do so.

Even people who don’t digest lactose effectively can tolerate moderate amounts of dairy, with studies showing that they can tolerate 12 grams of lactose at a time (the amount of lactose in one cup of milk) with little to no symptoms.

Furthermore, the developing science of epigenetics demonstrates that a “blueprint” is insufficient – genes can be “turned off” or “on” by a range of physiological and environmental factors.

instinctive knowledge

Over millennia, our digestive systems have evolved to handle a low-energy, nutrient-poor, and probably high-fiber diet. Western diets, on the other hand, have become high-energy, low-fiber, and high-fat.

Only the enzymes needed to break down starch, simple sugars, most proteins, and lipids are produced by our DNA. They haven’t evolved to deal with a constant supply of chicken nuggets, Tater Tots, and ice cream.

So, how do we manage to digest our food, although poorly, on a daily basis?

Thank goodness for the trillions of bacteria that dwell in our intestines. These helpful critters interact with our food in a variety of ways, including aiding in the breakdown of difficult plant fibers, the release of bound phytonutrients and anti-oxidants, and the assimilation of a variety of vital substances.

Although we don’t have direct proof of which bacterial species thrived in Paleolithic intestines, we may be quite certain that their microbial ecosystems would not have been identical to our own.

This is due to the fact that bacteria evolve and adapt at a far faster rate than our slow human genes. And that’s a good thing for us.

It explains why, even if the early human diet did not include grains, legumes, dairy, or other relatively recent agricultural goods, humans might still be able to thrive on such a diet today – with a little help from our bacterial buddies.

The enchanted microbiome

We now know that trillions of bacteria from thousands of distinct species inhabit the human body thanks to the Human Microbiome Project and other huge research programs throughout the world.

In fact, these tiny organisms’ total genetic makeup is at least 100 times higher than ours! (To put it another way, we’re only 1% human.) Consider that for a moment.)

Our GI tracts can adjust quickly to changes in diet and lifestyle thanks to this genetic variety.

A single meal can alter the microorganisms that live in your stomach. Even a few days on a new diet can result in significant changes in the bacterial populations in your GI tract.

Even though we’re all genetically identical, the diverse, complicated, and dynamic structure of our microbiome helps to explain why some of us seem to fare well on one sort of food while others feel and perform better on another.

Many of us can break down the more “modern” food ingredients that Paleo proponents claim we couldn’t handle because our intestines contain bacteria that have evolved to do so.

Some Japanese people, for example, have a strain of bacteria that aids in the digestion of seaweed.

Many people can also relieve lactose intolerance symptoms by eating yogurt or other probiotic-rich foods that contain lactose-digesting bacteria.

Even if you don’t naturally break down lactose properly, you can encourage the bacteria in your stomach to do it on your behalf with the right combination of foods and/or probiotic pills.

Furthermore, the same approach could be used to treat gluten intolerance. According to new research, certain bacteria create enzymes that break down gluten and phytic acid, lowering inflammatory and anti-nutrient effects.

Which, as we all know, are two of the key reasons why Paleo diets are recommended in the first place.

Paleo studies in the present day

Paleo advocates’ evolutionary arguments simply do not hold water, no matter how you slice it.

However, this does not imply that the diet is inherently unhealthy.

Perhaps it’s a healthy diet for entirely other reasons than they claim.

To see if this is true, a number of researchers have used controlled clinical trials to put Paleo diets to the test. So far, the results are good, albeit unfinished.

Diets: Paleo vs. Mediterranean

Dr. Lindeberg, who also researched the Kitavan Islanders, is perhaps the most well-known of these researchers. He and his colleagues have done two clinical trials to see if the Paleo diet is effective.

They selected diabetic and pre-diabetic individuals with heart problems for the first study and put them on one of two diets:

  1. A diet based on lean meat, fish, fruit, vegetables, starchy root vegetables, eggs, and nuts, known as a “Paleolithic” diet, or
  2. Whole grains, low-fat dairy, vegetables, fruit, fish, oils, and margarine were all part of a “Mediterranean” diet.

After 12 weeks, the Mediterranean group had decreased body fat and improved diabetic indicators. By the end of the trial, four of the nine people who had diabetes blood sugar levels at the start had returned to normal. That’s a fantastic result, and the participants must be overjoyed.

The Paleo group, on the other hand, did even better.

They dropped 70% more body fat than the Mediterranean group and their blood sugars were similarly corrected. In fact, by the end of the research, all ten participants who had diabetic blood sugar levels at the start had improved to non-diabetic levels.

That is an incredible result by any standard.

These subjects were now suffering from early-stage diabetes. However, a second study of long-term diabetes found that while a Paleo diet did not cure patients, it did greatly improve their condition.

According to other studies:

  • Per calorie, the Paleo diet is more satiating than the Mediterranean diet.
  • Blood pressure, glucose tolerance, and blood lipids all improve with the Paleo diet.

One caution, however: the macronutrients (particularly protein) in these experiments were not matched, as they are in most low-carb trials.

In comparison to the other diet groups, the Paleo group consumed much more protein. Protein helps us maintain lean muscle mass, stay lean, and feel pleased with our meals.

So, when it comes to protein intake, we’re not simply comparing apples to oranges; we’re comparing cereals to goat meat. Literally.

The Paleo diet may be the greatest option, but without direct comparisons of macronutrients and calories, it’s difficult to say for sure.

Conclusion & recommendations

What aspects of the Paleo diet are correct?

Despite the fact that it is founded on a flawed evolutionary theory, the Paleo diet is likely to get more things right than wrong in the end.

  • Whole foods, lean proteins, vegetables, fruits, nuts, seeds, and other healthy fats are all emphasized in the Paleo diet, which is a significant improvement over the typical Western diet.
  • Paleo-style eating has shown to be particularly successful in the treatment of a variety of chronic conditions. That alone is a significant benefit.
  • Paleo-style eating has made us more conscious of how processed and unhealthy most of our modern food is.

However, before we can draw any definitive findings, we need additional rigorous (and precisely matched) experiments.

What are the difficulties?

The Paleo diet has numerous limitations, despite its evident advantages over a regular Western diet.

  • The evidence for avoiding dairy, legumes, and grains isn’t as robust as it could be. As a nutritionist, I can’t say there’s a one-size-fits-all solution. Certainly, certain people should avoid dairy and gluten, as well as limit their bean and grain intake. However, most of us can improve our appearance, feeling, and performance without fully avoiding these items.
  • The evolutionary explanations seem unconvincing. The human species is more than just a collection of Paleolithic-era adaptations. Since the earliest prokaryotes came to life on Earth, we have been an ever-evolving collection of inherited features (and microbes) that have been exchanged, reconstructed, lost, and retrieved. This evolution has been going on for 10,000 years and isn’t going to stop anytime soon.
  • In general, most people find it difficult to rigidly adhere to a list of “good” and “bad” or “allowed” and “not allowed” foods. This strategy usually results in anxiety and all-or-nothing thinking. In the short term, it may make us feel more confident and (falsely) certain of ourselves. However, it is less effective in the long run because it reduces our consistency.

This could help to explain why the Paleo diet is changing.

It’s all about evolution, baby.

Many Paleo supporters have recently come to accept and encourage the addition of reasonable amounts of carbohydrate (although in a smaller variety than I would prefer), as well as dark chocolate, red wine, non-grain alcohol (such as tequila), and grass-fed dairy.

These enhancements make living much more enjoyable. They make eating healthy more appealing and feasible.

In fact, this increased “leniency” could explain why the Paleo diet is gaining popularity in conventional nutrition circles.

Because, in the end, moderation, rationality, and personal tastes trump any diet list, anti-nutrient avoidance, or evolutionary theory.

What should I do today?

Consider the advantages of traditional living. Fresh food, fresh air, lots of movement, decent sleep, and a strong social network are all part of this. How could you incorporate even a smidgeon of them into your life today?

Consider how you might transition from processed 21st-century living and food to choices that are more in line with what your ancient body need and enjoys.

Find out more about your forefathers and mothers. Evolution is fascinating. Investigate your ancestors: where did your ancestors come from? What did their ancestors eat? (23andMe can tell you how much Neanderthal DNA you have.)

Maintain a level of simplicity and sanity. It’s much better to do a few excellent things well (such getting a little extra sleep or eating more fresh vegetables) than to attempt to achieve a lot of things “perfect.”

Maintain a critical and educated mindset. Avoid thinking that is dogmatic or cultish. Maintain skepticism. Examine the evidence. Everything should be questioned. Keep your late-evolving prefrontal cortex (aka your thinky brain) in the game as you consider all the options. Primal eating is a super cool idea that may turn out to be more or less right; just keep your late-evolving prefrontal cortex (aka your thinky brain) in the game as you consider all the options.

Assist your aging body (and its trillions of little friends) in doing their jobs. Our bodies are incredibly strong. We didn’t become one of the world’s most dominating species by being picky, delicate flowers. However, consider how you might best nourish your body so that your body and microbiota have the best chance of surviving and growing.

References

To see the information sources mentioned in this article, go here.

Benefits of long-term use of a probiotic combination of Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Bifidobacterium breve. Almeida CC, et al. In lactose-intolerant people, yakult may continue after medication has been stopped. 2012 Apr;27(2):247-51 in Nutr Clin Pract.

Whole-grain meals have no effect on insulin sensitivity or markers of lipid peroxidation and inflammation in healthy, moderately overweight subjects, according to Anderson et al. 137(6):1401-1407. J Nutr. 2007;137(6):1401-1407.

D. Aune et al. Systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective research on dietary fibre, whole grains, and colorectal cancer risk. The British Medical Journal, vol. 343, no. d6617, was published in 2011.

Malika Bouchenak and Myriem Lamri-Senhadji. A Review of Legumes’ Nutritional Quality and Their Role in Cardiometabolic Risk Prevention. 185–198 in Journal of Medicinal Food.

Caminero A, et al. Isolation of bacteria with potential interest for celiac disease from the cultivable human gut microbiota implicated in gluten metabolism. 2014 May;88(2):309-19 in FEMS Microbiol Ecol.

Rocio Campos-Vega, Guadalupe Loarca-Pia, and B. Dave Oomah. 2010. Campos-Vega, Rocio, Guadalupe Loarca-Pia, and B. Dave Oomah. Pulses’ Minor Components and Their Potential Effect on Human Health 461–482 in Food Research International, vol. 43, no. 2.

Rachel N. Carmody and Richard W. Wrangham. 2009. The Importance of Cooking in terms of Energy. Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 379–391.

The Western Diet and Lifestyle and Civilizational Diseases, Carrera-Bastos P, et al. 2:15-35 in Research Reports in Clinical Cardiology, 2001.

TE Cerling et al. Theropithecus diet in Kenya from 4 to 1 Ma. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. vol. 10507-10512, vol. 110, no. 26, pages. 10507-10512

Stable isotope-based diet reconstructions of Turkana Basin hominins. Cerling TE, et al. 2013 Jun 25;110(26):10501-6. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jun 25;110(26):10501-6.

The 10,000 Year Explosion: How Civilization Accelerated Human Evolution, by G. Cochran and H. Harpending. (2009, Basic Books).

2005. Cordain, L., et al. The Western Diet’s Origins and Evolution: Health Implications for the Twenty-First Century 341–354 in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 81, no. 2.

L. Cordain, The Paleo Diet, 2011. Eat the Foods You Were Meant to Eat to Lose Weight and Get Healthy. Wiley, Hoboken, N.J., rev. ed.

Review of the health advantages of peas, Dahl WJ, et al (Pisum sativum L.). 2012;108 Suppl 1:S3-10 in Br J Nutr.

LA David et al. Diet modifies the human gut microbiome in a consistent and quick manner. 559–563 in Nature 505. (23 January 2014)

1985. Eaton, SB, and Konner, M. Nutrition in the Paleolithic Era. A Look at Its Origins and Current Consequences. 283–289. The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 312, no. 5, pp. 283–289.

1997. Eaton, SB, and Konner, MJ. Paleolithic Nutrition Revisited: A Twelve-Year Look Back at Its Origins and Consequences 207–216 in European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 51, no. 4.

The Ancestral Human Diet: What Was It and Should It Be a Paradigm for Contemporary Nutrition? Eaton, SB. 2006. 1–6 in Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, vol. 65, no. 1.

Blue eye color in humans may be caused by a perfectly linked founder mutation in a regulatory region inside the HERC2 gene that inhibits OCA2 production, according to Eiberg et al. Human Genetics, vol. 123, no. 2, pp. 177-187, March 2008.

Cereal grains and legumes in the prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke: a review of the literature, Flight I, Clifton P. 2006;60(10):1145-1149 in Eur J Clin Nutr.

LA Frassetto et al. A Paleolithic, hunter-gatherer-style diet improves metabolic and physiologic health. 2009;63(8):947-955 in Eur J Clin Nutr.

Impacts of Plant-Based Foods in Ancestral Hominin Diets on Gut Microbiota Metabolism and Function in Vitro, Frost GS, et al. 2014;5:mBio (3). e00853-14, e00853-14, e00853-14, e00853-14

The gut microbiota’s role in defining human health, Fujimura KE, et al. Anti Infect Ther Expert Rev. 2010 Apr;8(4):435-54.

Effects of yogurt and bifidobacteria supplementation on the colonic microbiota in lactose-intolerant individuals, He T, et al. 104(2):595-604 in J Appl Microbiol, February 2008.

A.G. Henry, A.S. Brooks, and D.R. Piperno. Calculus Microfossils Show Plant Consumption and Cooked Food Consumption in Neanderthal Diets (Shanidar III, Iraq; Spy I and II, Belgium). 108(2) of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences:

Hollo E. Evolutionary Genetics: Lactase Persistence Genetics – New Lessons in the History of Milk Consumption 267–269, 486–491 in European Journal of Human Genetics, 2005.

The Human Microbiome Project Consortium is a non-profit organization dedicated to studying the human microbio The healthy human microbiome’s structure, function, and variety. 207–214 in Nature 486, (14 June 2012).

Consumption of whole grain and legume powder lowers insulin demand, lipid peroxidation, and plasma homocysteine levels in individuals with coronary artery disease: a randomized controlled clinical trial, Jang Y, et al. 2001;21(12):2065-2071 in Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol.

Whole grains, bran, and germ in relation to homocysteine and glycemic control indicators, lipids, and inflammation, Jensen MK, et al. 2006;83(2):275-283 in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Moving North: Archaeobotanical Evidence for Middle and Upper Paleolithic Plant Diet in Europe. Jones, M. Diets of Hominins Have Changed Over Time. Pp. 171–180 in Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology, 2009.

T. Jönsson et al. A randomized cross-over pilot research looked at the impact of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients. 8, 35. Cardiovasc Diabetol (2009).

T. Jonsson et al. In people with ischemic heart disease, a Paleolithic diet is more satiating per calorie than a Mediterranean-style diet. 2010;7:85 in Nutr Metab (Lond).

Nutritional quality and health advantages of chickpea (Cicer arientum L.): a review. Jukanti AK, et al. 2012;108 Suppl 1:S11-16 in Br J Nutr.

Wholegrain cereals for coronary heart disease, Kelly SA, et al. 2007;(2):CD005051 in the Cochrane Database Syst Rev.

Mousterian Vegetal Food in Kebara Cave, Mt. Carmel, 2005. Lev E, Kislev ME, and Bar-Yosef O. 475–484 in Journal of Archaeological Science, vol. 32, no. 3.

Apparent absence of stroke and ischemic heart disease in a traditional Melanesian island: a clinical study in Kitava, Lindeberg S, and Lundh B. 269-275 in J. Intern. Med (1993).

S. Lindeberg et al. In people with ischemic heart disease, a Palaeolithic diet improves glucose tolerance more than a Mediterranean-style diet. 1795-1807 in Diabetologia (2007).

Lindeberg S. 2005. Palaeolithic Diet (“stone Age” Diet). Food & Nutrition Research 49(2): 75–77.

S. Lindeberg. Modern Human Physiology in Relation to Evolutionary Adaptations Related to Past Diet. Diets of Hominins Have Changed Over Time. Pp. 43–57 in Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology, 2009.

S. Lindeberg, S. Lindeberg, S. Lindeberg, S. Lindeberg, S. Lindeberg, S. Lindeberg, S. Lindeberg, S (Wiley-Blackwell: 2010).

Mozambican grass seed usage during the Middle Stone Age, Mercader J. Science 326(5960):1680-183 on December 18, 2009.

Mummert A, et al. Stature and robusticity during the agricultural transition: Evidence from the bioarchaeological record. Economics & Human Biology. 2011;9(3): 284–301.

JH O’Keefe Jr and L Cordain. 2004. How to Become a 21st-Century Hunter-Gatherer: Cardiovascular Disease Caused by a Diet and Lifestyle at Odds With Our Paleolithic Genome Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 101–108.

Improving Mental Health Through Nutrition: The Future. Nutritional Neuroscience 4(4): 251– 272. Prasad, C. 2000. Improving Mental Health Through Nutrition: The Future. Nutritional Neuroscience 4(4): 251– 272.

Thirty thousand-year-old evidence of plant food processing, Revedin A, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, vol. 107, no. 44, pp. 18815-18819, Nov. 2, 2010.

F. Roy, J.I. Boye, and B.K. Simpson. 2010. Pulse Crops: Pea, Chickpea, and Lentil Bioactive Proteins and Peptides 432–442 in Food Research International, vol. 43, no. 2.

M. Savard, M. Savard, M. Savard, M. Savard, M. Savard New Evidence from the Northern Fertile Crescent on the Role of Wild Grasses in Subsistence and Sedentism. 179–196 in World Archaeology, vol. 38, no. 2.

KP Scott et al. Dietary influences on the gut microbiota Volume 69, Issue 1, March 2013, Pages 52–60 in Pharmacological Research

Isotopic evidence of early hominin diets, Sponheimer M, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 110(26), 10513–10518, June 25, 2013.

Thompson, R.C., and colleagues The Horus research of four ancient populations looked at atherosclerosis throughout the course of 4000 years of human history. The Lancet, vol. 381, no. 9873, pp. 1212–22, April 6, 2013.

PS Ungar et al., 2006. A Review of the Evidence and a New Model of Adaptive Versatility in Early Homo. Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 209–228

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58(11):1443-14461. Venn BJ, Mann JI. Cereal grains, legumes, and diabetes.

JG Wynn, et al. Australopithecus afarensis diet from Ethiopia’s Pliocene Hadar Formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 110(26), 10495–10500, June 25, 2013.

Identification of Rothia bacteria as gluten-degrading natural colonizers of the upper gastro-intestinal tract. Zamakhchari M, et al. PLoS One, vol. 6, no. 9, e24455.

[Effect of probiotics and yogurt on colonic microbiota in lactose-intolerant patients]. Zhong Y, et al. 2006 Sep;35(5):587-91 in Wei Sheng Yan Jiu.

EG Zoetendal et al. The microbiota of the human small intestine is propelled by the quick intake and conversion of simple carbohydrates. ISME Journal 6, 1415–1426 (2012);

If you’re a coach or wish to be one…

It’s both an art and a science to coach clients, patients, friends, or family members through healthy food and lifestyle adjustments in a way that’s tailored to their individual body, tastes, and circumstances.

Consider the Level 1 Certification if you want to learn more about both.

The Paleo diet makes up a large part of the eating lifestyle segment that has become popular in the last few years. The Paleo diet is based on the theory that the diet of our ancestors was the most optimal way to eat. In the Paleo diet, it is assumed that the human being evolved from a species that ate what is known as the Paleolithic diet, which consisted of meat, vegetables, fruits, and nuts. The main idea behind Paleo is that you can eat like a caveman, naturally and at the same time, be fit and healthy.. Read more about long-term effects of paleo diet and let us know what you think.

{“@context”:”https://schema.org”,”@type”:”FAQPage”,”mainEntity”:[{“@type”:”Question”,”name”:”What are cons of the paleo diet?”,”acceptedAnswer”:{“@type”:”Answer”,”text”:”
The paleo diet is a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet that excludes processed foods and refined sugar. Its been popularized by people like Dr. Loren Cordain, who argues that the diet can help improve health and reduce the risk of chronic disease.”}},{“@type”:”Question”,”name”:”Why paleo diet is wrong?”,”acceptedAnswer”:{“@type”:”Answer”,”text”:”
The paleo diet is based on the idea that humans should eat like they did before agriculture. This means eating mostly meat, vegetables, and fruits. However, this is not a good idea because its hard to get all of our nutrients without some help from other foods.”}},{“@type”:”Question”,”name”:”What are the pros of paleo diet?”,”acceptedAnswer”:{“@type”:”Answer”,”text”:”
The pros of the paleo diet are that it is a low-carb, high-protein diet. It has been shown to be effective for weight loss and improving overall health.”}}]}

Frequently Asked Questions

What are cons of the paleo diet?

The paleo diet is a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet that excludes processed foods and refined sugar. Its been popularized by people like Dr. Loren Cordain, who argues that the diet can help improve health and reduce the risk of chronic disease.

Why paleo diet is wrong?

The paleo diet is based on the idea that humans should eat like they did before agriculture. This means eating mostly meat, vegetables, and fruits. However, this is not a good idea because its hard to get all of our nutrients without some help from other foods.

What are the pros of paleo diet?

The pros of the paleo diet are that it is a low-carb, high-protein diet. It has been shown to be effective for weight loss and improving overall health.

Related Tags

This article broadly covered the following related topics:

  • paleo diet pros and cons pdf
  • negative effects of paleo diet
  • problems with paleo diet
  • paleo diet problems
  • paleo diet benefits and risks

About Vaibhav Sharda

Vaibhav Sharda

Check Also

Exploring coronary artery calcium with Dr. Arthur Agatston —

For decades, doctors have been saying that heart disease begins in your arteries, but a …